Overview

The main focus of the Papase School site was to address the erosion issues faced by the school, including areas around the foundation of the buildings, channeling erosion of areas in the courtyard, the outflow of the drainage channel, and protection of the proposed new driveway. The facilities, as previously mentioned, are in excellent condition. However, the above erosion issues, if left unaddressed, would be cause for major concern in the future. Actions were also taken to create a driveway, which would provide easy access to the Papase School and allow the school to be better recognized from the road.

Driveway Improvement

A driveway was constructed at the Papase School in order to improve accessibility to the school and increase its visibility. The driveway was constructed with six inches of mixed rock base course and a 5/8” aggregate surface to a depth of four inches. Boulders roughly 9 inches to 18 inches in diameter were placed in the ditches of the driveway to slow the velocity of the water flowing through the ditches along side the new drive. Around the driveway, various plants were planted to further help with erosion and also to add to the aesthetics of the school. A sign declaring the site as the Papase RC Basic School was placed at the end of the driveway. This was done at the request of the village in order to further iterate the location of the Papase School to passersby. The final phase in the erosion prevention of the driveway project was planting grass around the driveway.

Drainage Channel Improvement

The only previous effort to deter erosion in the school premises was a drainage channel around one of the school buildings. The channel was built to collect water from the building’s roof and runoff from the surrounding area, allowing the runoff to safely flow around the building without compromising the stability of the building’s foundation. However, these channels were not well kept and were filled with sand and other debris. Also, the outlet of the channel was blocked by sand impeding the flow of the water and causing water flowing out of the channel to erode the footpath used to access the other school buildings.

A decision was made to create an extension of the channel 35-feet past the foot trail to an area of dense vegetation. Plans for the channel, constructed out of four-inch concrete reinforced with rebar, were to continue the existing channel’s five percent grade. Upon digging a ditch for the channel’s extension, a slab of concrete was discovered approximately one foot below the ground surface. Upon asking the Papase community, it was discovered the slab was created the previous spring in order to help with preventing the erosion of the walkway. The slab was previously used to carry water from the channel to vegetation behind the school, however the slab did not have any sides. The lack of sides caused two problems. First, the slab would not be able to direct any water without sides. Second, the slab was not able to prevent sand and debris from covering it.

The existing concrete slab was left in place and a new channel was formed on top.  Riprap was placed at the outflow of the channel to slow and spread runoff. To prevent eroded material from entering the channel and potentially impeding the flow of water in the new channel, a berm was created on the uphill side. The berm consisted of rocks, discarded sandcrete blocks, and clay. The clay was then packed down using the ends of logs as tamps and by people walking over the berm. Villagers and school officials were provided instructions to keep the berm from silting in so that runoff remains properly channeled.

Terracing and Preservation of Building’s Foundation

The final project at Papase was to slow the flow of water and preserve the foundation of one of the school buildings. Due to the shedding of water from the roof, extensive erosion of the building’s foundation had already exposed the footing and undermined the foundation. To sustain the foundation’s integrity, large stones ranging from six inches to two feet in diameter were placed next to the foundation to help prevent further erosion. The indicated size of stone was all that was available from the local quarry.

The large volume of water coming off the roof of one of the school building caused gullies to form running down the hill toward a school building and the driveway. To of water, allowing the water to infiltrate into the sandy soil. First, a grader was used to roughly shape the earth into three flat terraces. Second, two pieces of bamboo approximately four inches in diameter and eight feet long were stacked on top of each other to retain the fill which was placed behind them. To keep the soil beneath the bamboo from eroding away, stone was placed along the front of each terrace. The ends of each terrace were stabilized by larger boulders. Finally, community members planted grass in order to have vegetation further retain the soil.

Textbooks for the Papase School

A shortage of books by the Papase School was noted in the course of the Chapter’s August 2007 visit. As a result, over 400 pounds of textbooks, workbooks, notebooks, and teachers’ manuals were donated to the school of Papase by the EWB Team. The subjects of these books included science, math, geography, English vocabulary, grammar, and history. These texts more than doubled the existing supply of books owned by the school.